MQTT: A Basic Guide for IoT Developers


MQTT: Communication Standard for the IoT (Image Source: spiceworks) What is MQTT? MQTT, Message Queuing Telemetry Transport, is a communication standard often used in scalable and responsive IoT systems. It is a light weight IoT messaging protocol that ensures reliable and secure communication over unreliable channels. It is an event-driven protocol that uses the Publisher/Subscriber […]

A Developer’s Guide to Achieving Ultra-Long Battery Life in Monitoring Devices with ESP32’s ULP Coprocessor

Ultra low power coprocessor - ULP

Image source – https://portal.vidadesilicio.com.br/ The ESP32’s Ultra-Low Power (ULP) coprocessor presents a sophisticated avenue for developers aiming to extend battery life and reduce power consumption without sacrificing performance. This guide delves into the uses of the ULP coprocessor and outlines methods for programming it effectively. Understanding the ULP Coprocessor The ULP coprocessor in the ESP32 […]

An Overview of USB-C and USB3.x

USb Type-C

What is USB Type-C? USB Type-C is a connector specification developed by USB Implementers Forum (USB-IF). It is not a communication protocol such as USB 3.2 and USB 2.0. The “C” designation signifies its unique physical form factor, distinct from earlier USB connectors. One of its hallmark features is its reversible design, which eliminates the […]

FreeRTOS vs Embedded Linux – Which One Should I Use?

FreeRTOS Embedded Linux

One major decision made by the embedded system architect is to choose the right operating system for the application. Two common operating systems for embedded systems are Embedded Linux and FreeRTOS. So, you may ask, which one of the two should I choose to develop my system? FreeRTOS or Linux? Which One is Better for […]

How NB-IoT is Transforming Connectivity – An Intro to NB-IoT


Introduction NB-IoT is a wireless IoT protocol that uses Low Power Wide Area Network technology and operates within licensed frequency bands. NB-IoT typically offers a communication range of up to 5 km under standard conditions. In areas with minimal interference and clear line of sight, such as rural settings, this range can extend up to […]

A Beginner’s Guide to Millimeter-Wave (mmWave) Radar Technology – Applications and Advantages


Millimeter-wave radar (or mmWave radar) is a class of radar technology that operates in the 30 GHz to 300 GHz frequency range. This offers unique advantages in applications ranging from automotive to meteorological systems. Introduction to Millimeter-Wave Radar Millimeter-wave (mmWave) radar operates on electromagnetic waves with wavelengths ranging from 1 millimeter to 10 millimeter (frequency […]

Ensuring Reliability of Safety Critical Software with MISRA


In safety-critical software systems—deployed in industries like medicine, automotive, and space—a single programming error can have dire consequences, from significant financial losses or potential loss of human life. This is where the MISRA standard comes into play. It is specifically designed for safety-critical systems, ensuring they meet stringent security and reliability requirements. The Need for […]

Solving RTOS (Real Time Operating System) Limitations with Active Objects in Embedded Systems

Solving RTOS (Real Time Operating System) Limitations with Active Objects in Embedded Systems

In embedded systems, Real-Time Operating Systems (RTOS) are designed to synchronize thread execution with specific events, often through blocking and waiting for designated occurrences. However, this approach has its drawbacks. Blocked threads become unresponsive to events they haven’t explicitly waited for, leading to the creation of more threads to handle additional events. But this growing […]

How to Avoid System Failure Caused by Collisions in RTOS – Introducing Mutual Exclusion


Real-Time Operating Systems (RTOS) are susceptible to system failure due to challenges like data/time collisions and race conditions. Unlike large desktop or server systems, such as Windows or Linux, where processes stay in their separate address spaces, RTOS threads all run together in the same address space. These threads often share resources like variables, functions, […]

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